The mitral valve is a valve that is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle and consists of two leaflets. The blood that gets dirty in the body and comes to the right atrium is poured into the right ventricle and the right ventricle pumps the dirty blood to the lungs for cleaning through the pulmonary vein. The blood cleansed in the lungs passes to the left atrium through 4 pulmonary veins. During the relaxation of the heart, the mitral valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle is opened and clean blood flows into the left ventricle. With the contraction of the left ventricle, the mitral valve closes and clean blood is pumped into the aortic vessel to be distributed throughout the body.
The reason for the closure of the mitral valve during the contraction of the heart is to prevent the blood from going back to the left atrium. Normal mitral valve area is 4-6 cm2. When there is a narrowing in the mitral valve, the valve area decreases, it becomes difficult for clean blood to drain from the left atrium to the left ventricle, and an increase in pressure occurs in the left atrium.
This pressure increase is reflected in the pulmonary veins and lung capillaries where the blood is oxygenated in the lung. As the valve gradually narrows, the pressure increase and associated signs and symptoms become evident.
As a result of blood and serum leakage into the lung cavities, the blood begins to pool in the lungs, resulting in pulmonary edema and death.
The mitral valve, the left penalty of the heart, is located between two compartments: the atrium (upper) and the ventricle (lower). Blood is pumped into the left ventricle as it travels from the left atrium through the mitral valve and aorta. The healthy mitral valve allows blood to pass but does not flow back through the anterior entrance.
Mitral stenosis, known as mitral stenosis, occurs when the mitral valve opening is narrowed. This means that the background does not bleed. This can cause a variety of issues including fatigue, trouble breathing, blood clots, and heart failure.
Scar Development from Rheumatic Shot is a leading cause of mitral stenosis. Some rheumatic fever is common in the United States because of the early recognition and treatment of streptococcal infections.
Mitral stenosis is typically caused by rheumatic fever. It is usually a childhood illness and is caused by the body’s immune response to an infection with streptococcal bacteria. It is a serious complication of strep throat or rash.
The organs of the body most affected by acute rheumatic fever are the joints and the heart. Joints can become very inflamed and cause temporary or sometimes chronic disability. The lining of the heart (endocarditis), heart muscle (myocarditis), and the lining of the heart (pericarditis) can become inflamed.
As the mitral valve (or any of the heart valves) gets involved, a chronic heart condition called rheumatic heart disease occurs. The clinical signs and symptoms of this condition may not appear until 5 to 10 years after a rheumatic fever attack.
According to the American Heart Association (AHA), most cases of US mitral stenosis occur in older adults with rheumatic fever prior to antibiotic use. It is also more likely to occur in people from countries where rheumatic fever is common.
There are several tests your doctor can use to diagnose mitral stenosis:
Your doctor will listen to your heart with a stethoscope. In people with this condition, the heart often produces unusual sounds such as ridiculous and rippling. In our opinion, the “murmur” of the heart, arrhythmia, and lung fluids are signs of mitral stenosis.
In addition to confirming the diagnosis, your doctor may use various imaging tests to determine the original cause of the problem, including:
Today, mitral stenosis can be diagnosed easily with highly advanced ultrasound devices called echocardiography.
After the diagnosis of mitral stenosis is made by calculating the mitral valve area by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) method performed by placing an ultrasound probe on the anterior chest only, the degree of stenosis is the insufficiency accompanying the stenosis with the transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examination performed by swallowing an oral probe into the esophagus. it is checked whether there is a clot in the left atrium and the condition of the under-valve structures. As a result of these controls, whether the valve is suitable for non-surgical treatment is determined by a special scoring system.
In addition to the two-dimensional TEE examination, it is easily determined whether there is a valve structure suitable for open non-surgical treatment with the three-dimensional echocardiography method, which shows the condition of the under-valve structures more clearly.
Today, echocardiography is a very useful tool in determining the diagnosis and treatment of mitral stenosis. In our clinic, TTE, two-dimensional and three-dimensional TEE examinations are performed for all patients with suspected mitral stenosis.
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